Background & aims: Endoscopy is used to measure activity of Crohn’s disease (CD) and determine eligibility and outcomes of participants in randomized controlled trials of therapeutic agents. We aimed to estimate the rate of response to placebo in trials, based on endoscopic evaluation of CD activity, and identify factors that affect this response.


TNF Treatment, Trial Design, Ustekinumab, Crohn's Disease, Drug Therapy, Endoscopy, Observational Studies, Placebo Effect

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