Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have revolutionized the treatment of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. While efficacious, responses to these therapies vary considerably from patient to patient, due in part to inter- and intra-individual variability in pharmacokinetics (PK) and drug exposure. The concept of personalized medicine to monitor drug exposure and to adjust dosing in individual patients is consequently gaining acceptance as a powerful tool to optimize mAb therapy for improved outcomes in IBD. This review provides a brief overview of the different mAbs currently approved or in development for the treatment of IBD, including their presumed mechanisms of action and PK properties. Specifically described are (1) the factors known to affect mAb PK and drug exposure in patients with IBD, (2) the value of population PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling to identify and understand the influence of these factors on drug exposure and effect, and (3) the clinical evidence for the potential of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to improve IBD outcomes in response to mAb-based therapy. Incorporation of PK/PD parameters into clinical decision support tools has the potential to guide therapeutic decision making and aid implementation of personalized medicine strategies in patients with IBD.